Leading up to Self-Direction and Readiness in the Lower Level of Education
Hersey and Blanchard (1988) say that learners cannot be ready to learn if they are not motivated or willing to perform the tasks needed in a self-directing manner. Self-Directed Learners SDL must be self-managing (understanding of the significance of tasks and the intended outcomes), self-monitoring (understanding what is effective and having sufficient knowledge about established conscious strategies needed to make-appropriate decisions), and self-modifying (able to evaluate and adjust to constant meaning and changes) (Costa & Kallick, 2004). A self-directed learner who is empowered is more likely to participate in a two-year or four-year college (Berry, Ward, & Caplan, 2012).
According to Grow (1991), there are several presumptions made with regard to understanding a self-directed learner. Some of those assumptions are that self-direction is the primary goal of a secondary educational environment, that self-direction can be learned, and that self-direction is situational to learners and teachers. The problem with assumptions is that educators have not been able to specifically and adequately define what the self-directed learner looks like (Costa & Kallick, 2004). However, they do agree that a quality of a self-directed learner is a learner who is able to orient her/himself to the educational process at all levels, and that the inability of a learner to develop self-direction can be a serious limitation at the post-secondary level (Costa & Kallick, 2004; Grow, 1991).
Some good self-directed learning models exist. For example, Grow (1991) uses a Staged Self-Directed Learning (SSDL) Model to show how teachers actively work with students to help them to become more self-directed. The stages of that model are:
Stage 1: Dependent Learner: A learner is solely dependent on an educator to provide immediate feedback on what, when and how to complete a task.
Stage 2: Interested Learner: A learner is motivated by the educator to begin goal-setting and developing learning strategies.
Stage 3: Involved Learner: A teacher facilitates the learning but in partnership with the student.
Stage 4: Self-directed Learner: The learners can work and function independently and is meeting expected outcomes.
In a traditional educational model, after students enter the classroom ready to acquire new knowledge, they progress through the classroom by moving from being scaffolded to making educational transitions, to meeting transformed outcomes (Tanner & Tanner, 2007; Baleghizadeh et al., 2010; Field, et al., 1998; Verenikina, 2008; Vygotsky, 1978). Shifting to the Lower Level of the framework, Grow’s (2001) Stages of Self-Direction are skills a student would develop in high school to be ready to begin a post-secondary education (Berry et al., 2012). See Figure 2.1, The Teaching and Learning Level.
Figure 2.1. The Teaching and Learning Level (from Chapter 1)
- Stage 1 and Stage 2: Educator uses coaching and motivation methods to assist a student through the scaffolding process.
- Stage 3: Learner moves forward and can transition from one learning goal to the next with limited assistance from the educator.
- Stage 4: Learner becomes self-directed and can be successful in a post-secondary setting on her/ his own.
Beal (2005) places the burden of understanding one’s disability, their legal rights, and the securuing of the appropriate academic adjustments at the feet of the LD student. He lists five specific rights and seven responsibilities that students with LD have (Beal, 2005). The five rights are:
- To receive modifications on college entrance exams.
- To receive academic adjustments.
- To refuse to inform any PSI of any learning disability.
- To not have other’s ask for the disability to be identified.
- The right to be heard if it is believed any disability rights have been violated.
The seven responsibilities are:
- To become familiar with federal regulations that impact LD at PSI
- To understand what assistance is necessary to assist with specific LD
- To learn to effectively self-advocate
- To obtain documentation of LD
- To determine the availablity of support services
- To notify PSI of any LD
- To work with educators to address LD and unique accommodations
These rights and responsibilities presume that students have learned to be self-directing prior to enrolling in PSI (Beal, 2005). Grow (1991) calls self-direction the higher mental function that matures over time by and through a particular history and social interaction (p. 128). Unfortunately, most LD students are so busy learning the skills needed to move from tast to task (Stages 1 – 3 of Self-Direction) in the classroom, that they are rarely, if ever, trained to be self-directed learners, nor are they trained to advocate for themselves as described by Beale (2005) (Hitchings, et al., 2010; Hitchings, et al., 2001). Such a situation creates a “catch-22” for the LD learner.
Full Text Citation:
Richmond, R. C.L. (2013). Perceptions of Learning-Difference (LD) Students on How their Specific LD Characteristics Impact the Post-secondary Education Experience. Argosy University.